Culture of the 1970s

 
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Ascent: 1970

Decline: 1979

Cultural Hallmarks: individualism, impact of the Cold War, détente, end of the Vietnam War, Second-Wave Feminism, cynicism, technological advancements, programming languages, modern computing, Bad Painting, Photorealism, disco, outlaw country, rock music subgenres, social consciousness programming, funk music birth of hip hop music, resurgence of classic storytelling, Bronze Age of Comic Books, Blockbuster era, Asian cinema, pay television, consumer video games, arcades, first generation of video game consoles, mainframe computer games

The 1970s is often seen as a decade of economic and political change around the world as the postwar economic boom ended and the beginnings of increased political awareness from previous years continued to grow. It was given the nickname “The ‘Me’ Decade” by novelist Tom Wolfe in his description of a new attitude Americans expressed towards individualism and away from the communitarianism of the 1960s. Culturally, historians usually define the 1970s as lasting from the Manson murders and Altamont Free Concert in 1969 to the Disco Demolition Night on July 12, 1979, the murder of John Lennon on Dec. 8, 1980 and the launch of MTV on Aug. 1, 1981.

The Cold War stayed on most people’s minds. Following the fall of Saigon and surrender of South Vietnam in 1975, ending the Vietnam War, United States-Soviet Union confrontations cooled in favor of détente, or the idea of solving problems through negotiation. Still the rivalry between the two powers furthered in a more indirect manner, resulting in more proxy wars for control of smaller countries. Rather than directly fighting, each gave funding, training and material support to insurgent groups, governments and armies for geopolitical advantage and friendly governments. This could be seen in the Angolan Civil War which lasted from 1975 to 2002, the Ethiopian Civil War, fought between 1976 and 1991 and the decade-long Soviet-Afghan War that erupted in the final days of 1979.

Domestically in the United States, oil crises and low economic performance replaced the optimism of the 1950s and 1960s with cynicism, a distrust of government and technology. Environmental issues became mainstream, the Sexual Revolution reached its peak, crime rose, the Second-Wave Feminism Movement carried over for a prominent role within society and the Civil Rights Movement splintered into various social groups.

Technologically, the world saw the birth of modern computing with the development of the world’s first general microprocessor, C programming language, personal computers, floppy disks, email and consumer video games. Fiber optics, VCRs, voicemail, cell phones, car phones and microwave ovens all had their genesis in the 1970s as well.

New bold and unique art styles bubbled up in the 1970s, such as a style known as Bad Painting. Becoming popular after a 1978 exhibition in New York, it was an American style of figurative painting where artists created humorous, cynical or cartoonish pieces while discarding the conventional rules of art. The original exhibition saw the works of artists like Joan Brown, Cply, Charles Garabedian, Cham Hendon, Neil Jenney and Judith Linhares.

“John’s Diner” by John Baeder

“John’s Diner” by John Baeder

Though it began in the 1960s, Photorealism reached its height as an art form in the early 1970s and has continued into the present day. Artists would photograph a scene, develop and transfer it onto a canvas using paint resulting in photographic-looking artwork. The progenitors of photorealism included John Baeder, Robert Bechtle, Chuck Close, Don Eddy, Audrey Flack, Ian Hornak, Howard Kanovitz and John Salt.

Musicians who rose to fame in the 1960s dominated the musical landscape of the early 1970s. However, new groups and solo artists eventually emerged to make their mark. The Beatles also disbanded after 10 years as a successful group, each member went on to release a successful solo album and Paul McCartney remained the most popular throughout the decade.

Funk grew out of soul music, taking influence from rhythm and blues, jazz and psychedelic rock and putting more emphasis on the beat, and Disco became king in its utilization of beats, syncopated bass lines, string sections, horns, electric piano, synthesizers, and electric rhythm guitars. The Village People, KC and the Sunshine Band, the Bee Gees, Chic, Donna Summer and Gloria Gaynor are some well-known disco artists. The genre would see its death in an anti-disco protest in Chicago on July 12, 1979 known as Disco Demolition Night.

The Dark Side of the Moon  cover created by Georgie Hardie

The Dark Side of the Moon cover created by Georgie Hardie

Meanwhile, rock music splintered, allowing for several different subgenres to take root. Art rock, glam rock, punk rock, progressive rock, shock rock, hard rock and heavy metal all found their audiences. Elvis Presley gave more live performances until his death in 1977 and the highest-selling album was Pink Floyd’s The Dark Side of the Moon. Released in 1973, it was on the Billboard 200 albums chart for nearly 750 weeks.

Country music and its outlaw movement, led by Waylon Jennings and Willie Nelson, became more mainstream, too, and DJ Kool Herc and Afrika Bambaataa, among other disc jockeys, gave birth to hip hop music.

Classic storytelling found a resurgence in 1970s fiction and racism continued to be a highlighted literary subject alongside criminal non-fiction, exposés, high-profile biographies and irreverent satire. Horror became a sought after genre and throughout the decade, a former English teacher from Maine would write some of its most popular stories. Many of Stephen King’s works were turned into films.

cover to  The Amazing Spider-Man #122

cover to The Amazing Spider-Man #122

In the world of superheroes and comic books, the Silver Age of Comic Books reached its end in 1970 and the Bronze Age of Comic Books took its place. Readers were treated to darker plot elements in more morally ambiguous stories, storylines related to relevant social issues, character conflict used as a plot device and multi-issue story arcs. Heroes even faced consequences for their failures. One notable instance is seen in The Amazing Spider-Man #121, titled “The Night Gwen Stacy Died.” Additionally, more non-white characters were introduced leading to Marvel’s Luke Cage becoming the first black superhero to star in his own comic book (Luke Cage, Hero for Hire) in 1972.

The New Hollywood revolution of the late 1960s stretched into the 1970s and Stephen Spielberg’s 1975 film Jaws brought about the blockbuster era. Two years later, its success was dwarfed by George Lucas’ film Star Wars. Other films would launch a disco craze in the United States (Saturday Night Fever, 1977), become one of the industries greatest successes and pave the way for a successful sequel (The Godfather, 1972 and The Godfather Part II, 1974) and flop only to become a more popular midnight show and have the longest-running theatrical release in film history thanks to continued limited releases (The Rocky Horror Picture Show, 1975).

The Rocky Horror Picture Show  poster

The Rocky Horror Picture Show poster

Outside of the United States, Asian cinema sparked a greater interest in Chinese martial arts due to Hong Kong martial arts films. Bruce Lee is usually seen as this genre’s greatest icon.

At home, television networks drastically changed their programming to attract younger audiences. Rural and country shows were seen as outdated and replaced with what was called “social consciousness” programming. Various shows broke down barriers and non-white and women characters became main characters in many successful shows. A few of those programs were The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Police Woman, Wonder Woman, Sanford and Son, Good Times and What’s Happening!!. Prime time sitcoms pursued the nostalgia factor with Happy Days spin-offs Laverne & Shirley and Mork & Mindy, soap operas expanded their audiences, more adult shows (Charlie’s Angels, The Love Boat and Three’s Company) became popular, the long-running variety show Saturday Night Live premiered  and game shows had their golden age. In 1972, HBO launched and became the world’s first pay-television channel promising premium content. Showtime followed in 1976.

From their 1960s origins, video games became an industry in the 1970s. Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney founded Atari in 1972 and released a table tennis game called Pong. Then came racing games, one-on-one dueling games and target shooting games.

Pong

Pong

The First Generation of Home Consoles lasted from 1972 to 1978 and contained the Magnavox Odyssey, Magnavox Odyssey series, TV Tennis Electrotennis, Home Pong, Binatone TV Master, Telstar series and Color TV-Game series as available consoles. The Second Generation of Home Consoles took its place in 1976 with the Fairchild Channel F, Atari 2600, Bally Astrocade, Phillips Odyssey, Intellivision, Emerson Arcadia 2001, ColecoVision, Atari 5200, Vectrex, RCA STudio II, 1292 Advanced Programmable Video System, APF-MP1000, VC 4000, Epoch Cassette Vision and VTech CreatiVision.

Nevertheless, where fast-paced action and real-time gameplay were the standard for console games, strategy and puzzle-solving mechanics were preferred for mainframe computer games because of a lack of adequate displays and insufficient processing power. Still, when home computers started to appear in the late 1970s, hobbyist groups were able to begin porting popular arcade games. The Commodore PET and Apple II were favored by many early computer gamers.

Arcade video games received a golden age in 1978, popularized by Space Invaders and its use of lives, gaining extra lives through accumulating points, keeping track of the high scores, background music and waves of targets shooting back at the player. It and Asteroids were key in displacing pinball as central attractions in arcades.

top photo by John Vance/courtesy

Sociological Timeline

Jan 5, 1970 - First episode of All My Children broadcast on television

Jan 11, 1970 - Kansas City Chiefs beat Minnesota Vikings 23-7 in Super Bowl IV

Jan 14, 1970 - Diana Ross and The Supremes perform farewell concert in Las Vegas; Nigerian Civil War ends

Jan 21, 1970 - First commercially scheduled Boeing 747 service from John F. Kennedy

International Airport to London Heathrow airport offered by Pan American Airways

Jan 31, 1970 - “I Want You Back” becomes the Jackson 5’s first Billboard No. 1 Hot 100 single

Feb 11, 1970 - Japan’s first satellite, Ohsumi launched

Feb 13, 1970 - Black Sabbath releases debut album, regarded as the first true heavy metal album

Feb 14, 1970 - The Who: Live at Leeds is recorded

March 5, 1970 - Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty goes into effect

March 15, 1970 - Expo ‘70 World’s Fair opens in Osaka, Japan

March 16, 1970 - Complete New English Bible published

March 21, 1970 - First Earth Day proclamation issued

March 31, 1970 - Explorer 1, first American satellite reenters Earth’s atmosphere after 12 years in orbit

April 1, 1970 - Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act signed, bans cigarette television advertisements

April 10, 1970 - Paul McCartney announces he has left The Beatles

April 11, 1970 - Apollo 13 launched

April 13, 1970 - Oxygen tank in Apollo 13 spacecraft explodes, mission aborted

April 17, 1970 - Apollo 13 splashes down in Pacific Ocean

April 22, 1970 - First Earth Day celebrated in United States

April 24, 1970 - China launches Dong Fang Hong 1 as its first satellite

April 29, 1970 - United States invades Cambodia to hunt Viet Cong, antiwar protests occur in response

May 4, 1970 - Kent State Shootings

May 8, 1970 - The Beatles release final album, Let It Be

May 14, 1970 - Jackson State Killings

June 7, 1970 - The Who becomes the first act to perform rock music at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York

June 28, 1970 - United States ground troops withdraw from Cambodia

Aug. 24, 1970 - Vietnam War protesters bomb Sterling Hall at University of Wisconsin-Madison

Aug. 26, 1970 - Women’s Strike for Equality

Sept. 6, 1970 - Black September Crisis begins

Sept. 9, 1970 - Elvis Presley begins first concert tour since 1958

Sept. 13, 1970 - First New York City Marathon

Sept. 21, 1970 - Monday Night Football debuts, Cleveland Browns beat New York Jets 31-21

Sept. 24, 1970 - The Odd Couple premieres

Oct. 2, 1970 - Pink Floyd releases Atom Heart Mother, their first number one album

Oct. 4, 1970 - Death of Janis Joplin

Oct. 5, 1970 - Public Broadcasting Service begins

Oct. 9, 1970 - Khmer Republic proclaimed in Cambodia, Cambodian Civil War begins

Oct. 12, 1970 - President Nixon announces withdrawal of 40,000 more troops from Vietnam before Christmas

Oct. 15, 1970 - Baltimore Orioles defeat Cincinnati Reds 9-3 in 1970 World Series

Oct. 26, 1970 - Doonesbury debuts in about 24 United States newspapers

Dec. 2, 1970 - Environmental Protection Agency established

1971 - Ray Tomlinson sends first ARPANET e-mail; Center for Science in the Public Interest established

Jan. 12, 1971 - All in the Family debuts

Jan. 17, 1971 - Baltimore Colts defeat Dallas Cowboys 16-13 in Super Bowl V

Jan. 25, 1971 - Charles Manson and three female “Family” members found guilty of 1969 Tate-LaBianca murders

Feb. 9, 1971 - Satchel Paige becomes first Negro League player voted into Baseball Hall of Fame

Feb. 28, 1971 - Evel Knievel sets world record jumping 19 cars

March 5, 1971 - Led Zeppelin performs “Stairway to Heaven” live for the first time

March 8, 1971 - “Fight of the Century,” Joe Frazier defeats Muhammad Ali in 15-round unanimous decision

March 28, 1971 - The Ed Sullivan Show airs final episode

April 9, 1971 - Charles Manson sentenced to death

June 10, 1971 - United States ends trade embargo of China

June 13, 1971 - The New York Times begins to publish Pentagon Papers

June 17, 1971 - President Nixon declares War on Drugs

July 3, 1971 - Jim Morrison found dead

July 4, 1971 - A copy of the United States Declaration of Independence becomes first e-book, Michael S. Hart posts copy on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign’s mainframe computer

July 5, 1971 - 26th Amendment certified, voting age lowered from 21 to 18

July 17, 1971 - Black September Crisis ends

August 1971 - Camden Race Riots following beating death of a Puerto Rican motorist by city police

Aug. 15, 1971 - President Nixon announces end of the gold standard

Sept. 8, 1971 - John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts inaugurated

Oct 1, 1971 - Walt Disney World opens in Orlando

Oct 14, 1971 - Greenpeace founded

Oct 17, 1971 - Pittsburgh Pirates defeat Baltimore Orioles 2-1 in 1971 World Series

1972 - First women admitted to Dartmouth College; Worship of Norse gods officially approved in Iceland; Motown moves operations from Detroit to Los Angeles

Jan. 4, 1972 - First scientific handheld calculator introduced

Jan. 5, 1972 - President Nixon orders development of Space Shuttle Program

Jan. 16, 1972 - Dallas Cowboys defeat Miami Dolphins 24-3 in Super Bowl VI

Jan. 30, 1972 - Bloody Sunday

Feb. 3-14, 1972 - 1972 Winter Olympics held in Sapporo, Japan

Feb. 5, 1972 - Bob Douglas becomes first African American elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame

Feb 18, 1972 - California Supreme Court voids state death penalty

Feb. 21-28, 1972 - President Nixon makes unprecedented eight day visit to Republic of China

March 3, 1972 - Jethro Tull releases Thick as a Brick concept album

March 15, 1972 - The Godfather premieres

March 27, 1972 - First Sudanese Civil War ends

April 12, 1972 - First X-Rated animated movie, Fritz the Cat, released

April 17, 1972 - First Boston Marathon in which women allowed to compete officially

June 17, 1972 - Five White House operatives arrested for burglarizing offices of the Democratic National Committee

June 32, 1972 - President Nixon and Chief of Staff H. R. Halderman taped talking about using the CIA to obstruct FBI investigation of Watergate

June 28, 1972 - President Nixon announces no new draftees to be sent to Vietnam

June 29, 1972 - Furman v. Georgia, United States Supreme Court rules capital punishment unconstitutional

July 1972 - Jane Fonda tours North Vietnam

July 21, 1972 - George Carlin arrested in Milwaukee for reciting “Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television” at Summerfest

Aug. 26-Sept. 10, 1972 - 1972 Summer Olympics held in Munich

Sept. 4, 1972 - First daytime episode of second incarnation of The Price is Right premieres

Sept. 5-6, 1972 - Munich Massacre

Sept 17, 1972 - M*A*S*H premieres

Oct. 1, 1972 - The Joy of Sex published

Oct. 22, 1972 - Oakland A’s defeat Cincinnati Reds 3-2 in 1972 World Series

Nov. 29, 1972 - Atari releases Pong

Dec. 26, 1972 - Death of former President Harry S. Truman

1973 - New International Version published; Title of Queen of Australia created; Lite Beer introduced by Miller Brewing Company

Jan. 5, 1973 - Aerosmith releases debut album

Jan. 14, 1973 - Elvis Presley’s Hawaii concert first worldwide telecast by an entertainer that is watched more than the Apollo moon landings; Miami Dolphins defeat Washington Redskins 14-7 in Super Bowl VII, only perfect season in NFL history

Jan 15, 1973 - President NIxon announces the suspension of offensive action in North Vietnam

Jan. 22, 1973 - Roe v. Wade, United States Supreme Court overturn state bans on abortion; George Foreman defeats Joe Frazier to win heavyweight world boxing championship; Death of former President Lyndon B. Johnson

Jan. 27, 1973 - United States involvement in Vietnam War ends

March 1, 1973 - Charlotte’s Web animated film released; Pink Floyd’s The Dark Side of the Moon released in the United States

March 26, 1973 - The Young and the Restless debuts

April 3, 1973 - First handheld mobile phone call made by Martin Cooper of Motorola

April 4, 1973 - World Trade Center complex in New York City dedicated

April 8, 1973 - Death of Pablo Picasso

May 3, 1973 - Sears Tower becomes world’s tallest building

May 5, 1973 - Shambu Tamang becomes youngest person to climb summit of Mount Everest

May 14, 1973 - First United States space station, Skylab, launched

May 17, 1973 - Televised hearings for Watergate scandal begin

July 1, 1973 - Drug Enforcement Administration founded

July 20, 1973 - Death of Bruce Lee six days after release of Enter the Dragon

Aug. 11, 1973 - DJ Kool Herc originates hip hop music in New York City

Sept. 11, 1973 - Art Garfunkel releases solo debut album Angel Clare

Sept. 20, 1973 - Battle of the Sexes, Billie Jean King defeats Bobby Riggs in televised tennis match

Oct. 6-25, 1973 - Yom Kippur War

Oct. 10, 1973 - Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns

Oct. 20, 1973 - Saturday Night Massacre, President Nixon orders Attorney General Elliot Richardson to dismiss Watergate Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox, Richardson refuses and resigns with Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus, calls for Nixon’s impeachment raised; Sydney Opera House opens

Oct. 21, 1973 - Oakland A’s defeat New York Mets 5-6 in 1973 World Series

Nov. 17, 1973 - President Nixon tells 400 Associated Press managing editors “I am not a crook.”

Nov. 21, 1973 - President Nixon’s attorney J. Fred Buzhardt reveals existence of missing footage in Watergate recordings

Dec. 6, 1973 - Gerald Ford confirmed as Vice President

1974 - Rubix cube puzzle invented; Dungeons & Dragons released; PepsiCo becomes first American company to sell products in the Soviet Union.

Jan. 11, 1974 - David, Elizabeth, Emma, Grant, Jason and Nicolette Rosenkowitz become first recorded surviving sextuplets

Jan. 13, 1974 - Miami Dolphins defeat Minnesota Vikings 24-7 in Super Bowl VIII

March 4, 1974 - First issue of People magazine

April 1974 - World population reaches 4 billion

April 5, 1974 - Stephen King publishes Carrie as his first novel

May 4, 1974 - All-female Japanese team become first women to climb a 26,000 foot peak by reaching the summit of Manaslu in Nepal

June 26, 1974 - Universal Product Code scanned for the first time

Aug. 9, 1974 - President Nixon resigns, Gerald Ford sworn in as president

Sept. 8, 1974 - President Ford pardons former President Nixon

Sept. 12, 1974 - Ethiopian Civil War begins

Oct. 17, 1974 - Oakland A’s defeat Los Angeles Dodgers 3-2 in 1974 World Series

Oct. 30, 1974 - The Rumble in the Jungle - Muhammad Ali knocks out George Foreman in eight rounds, regains heavyweight title

Nov. 28, 1974 - John Lennon joins Elton John on stage at Madison Square Garden

1975 - First monster truck, Bigfoot, created by Bob Chandler

January 1975 - Altair 8800 released, sparks microcomputer revolution

Jan. 6, 1975 - Wheel of Fortune premieres

Jan. 12, 1975 - Pittsburgh Steelers defeat Minnesota Vikings 16-6 in Super Bowl IX

Feb. 11, 1975 - Margaret Thatcher becomes leader of the opposition UK Conservative Party, is Britain’s first female leader of any political party

March 4, 1975 - Charlie Chaplin knighted

March 8, 1975 - First appearance of Davros in Doctor Who

March 10, 1975 - The Rocky Horror Show opens on Broadway, closes after three previews and 45 performances

April 4, 1975 - Bill Gates and Paul Allen form Microsoft

April 17, 1975 - Cambodian Civil War ends

April 18, 1975 - Khmer Rouge begins forcible mass evacuation of Phnom Penh, starts genocide

April 30, 1975 - Vietnam War ends, Communist forces take Saigon

May 16, 1975 - Junko Tabei becomes first woman to reach summit of Mount Everest

June 20, 1975 - Jaws released, becomes standard for Hollywood blockbusters

Sept. 14, 1975 - Elizabeth Seton canonized, becomes first American Roman Catholic saint

Oct. 1, 1975 - Thrilla in Manila, Muhammad Ali defeats Joe Frazier

Oct. 11, 1975 - Saturday Night Live airs

Oct. 22, 1975 - Cincinnati Reds defeat the Boston Red Sox 4-3 in 1975 World Series

Oct. 31, 1975 - Queen releases Bohemian Rhapsody

Nov. 26, 1975 - The Rocky Horror Picture Show released in the United States

Dec. 25, 1975 - Steve Harris forms Iron Maiden

1976 - First truly complete recording of Porgy and Bess, First laser printer introduced by IBM; California’s sodomy law repealed; memetics proposed by Richard Dawkins in The Selfish Gene; New Jersey legalizes casinos in Atlantic City starting in 1978

January 1976 - Cray-1, the first commercially developed supercomputer, released

Jan. 12, 1976 - Death of Agatha Christie

Jan. 18, 1976 - Pittsburgh Steelers defeat the Dallas Cowboys 21-17 in Super Bowl X

Jan 21, 1976 - First commercial Concorde flight

Feb. 4-15, 1976 -1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria

April 1, 1976 - Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak form the Apple Computer Company

April 23, 1976 - The Ramones release debut album, Ramones

June 2, 1976 - Arizona Republic reporter Don Bolles fatally injured by car bomb

July 3, 1976 - Gregg v. Georgia, United States Supreme Court rules death penalty not inherently cruel or unusual and is constitutionally acceptable

July 4, 1976 - United States celebrates bicentennial

July 6, 1976 - First class of women inducted at United States Naval Academy

July 17-Aug. 1, 1976 - 1976 Summer Olympics begin in Montreal

Aug. 26, 1976 - First known Ebola outbreak in Yambuku, Zaire

Sept. 6, 1976 - Jerry Lewis and Dean Martin reunite for the first time in more than 20 years

Sept. 13, 1976 - The Muppet Show premieres

Sept. 25, 1976 - U2 forms

Oct. 21, 1976 - Cincinnati Reds defeat New York Yankees 7-2 in 1976 World Series

Nov. 2, 1976 - Jimmy Carter elected president, first candidate from the Deep South to win since the Civil War.

Dec. 8, 1976 - The Eagles release Hotel California

Dec. 28, 1976 - Death of guitarist Freddie King

January 1977 - First all-in-one home computer, Commodore PET, demonstrated

Jan. 3, 1977 - Apple Computer incorporated

Jan. 9, 1977 - David Patch and Jeff Porcaro start Toto; Oakland Raiders defeat Minnesota Vikings 32-14 in Super Bowl XI

Jan. 23, 1977 - Roots begins its ABC run

March 26, 1977 - Dr. James Dobson starts Focus on the Family

April 30, 1977 - Cambodian-Vietnamese War begins

May 25, 1977 - Star Wars opens, becomes highest-grossing film of its time

June 10, 1977 - First Apple II computers go on sale

June 12, 1977 - The Supremes perform their final concert

Aug. 3, 1977 - Tandy Corporation TRS-80 Model I computer announced

Aug. 16, 1977 - Death of Elvis Presley

Sept. 11, 1977 - Atari 2600 debuts

Oct. 18, 1977 - New York Yankees beat Los Angeles Dodgers 8-4 in 1977 World Series

1978 - Artificial insulin invented; Space Invaders released

Jan. 15, 1978 - Dallas Cowboys defeat Denver Broncos 27-10 in Super bowl XII

Feb. 8, 1978 - United States Senate proceedings first broadcast on radio

April 2, 1978 - Dallas debuts as the first modern-day primetime soap opera

June 19, 1978 - Garfield, the world’s most widely syndicated comic strip, debuts

Oct. 17, 1979 - New York Yankees defeat Los Angeles Dodgers 7-2 in 1978 World Series

Nov. 18, 1978 - Jonestown incident

Nov. 19, 1978 - First Take Back the Night march occurs

1979 - First usenet experiments conducted

Jan. 1, 1979 - United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim heralds start of the International Year of the Child

Jan. 9, 1979 - Music for UNICEF Concert

Jan. 21, 1979 - Pittsburgh Steelers beat Dallas Cowboys 35-31 at Super Bowl XIII

Feb. 2, 1979 - Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious found dead

Feb. 13, 1979 - Guardian Angels form in New York City as unarmed organization of young crime fighters

March 8, 1979 - compact disc demonstrated publicly for the first time

April 20, 1979 - President Carter attacked by a swamp rabbit while fishing

May 9, 1979 - Salvadoran Civil War begins

June 1979 - McDonald's introduces the Happy Meal

July 1, 1979 - Sony Walkman goes on sale in Japan

July 12, 1979 - Disco Demolition Night

Oct. 17, 1979 - Pittsburgh Pirates beat Baltimore Orioles 4-1 in 1979 World Series

Nov. 30, 1979 - Pink Floyd releases The Wall

Dec. 9, 1979 - Smallpox virus eradicated

Dec. 24, 1979 - Soviet Afghan War begins